Graziano and Raulin (8th ed)Graziano & Raulin
Research Methods (8th edition)

Chapter 3 Fill-in-the-Blank Questions
The Starting Point: Asking Questions

Now that you have familiarity with the new key terms of this chapter, it is time to begin using the terms in the context of the chapter material. See if you can fill-in-the-blanks in the following discussions. To get the correct answer, click on the blank.

  1. The purpose of research is to answer questions. Therefore, the starting point for research is the generation of __________. Questions may come from many sources. One source is the researcher's own personal __________ and observations. The __________ and research of other investigators are also useful starting points. The theories of other investigators are published in __________ and books and organized by abstracting services. In psychology, the __________-__________ is a primary source for locating particular psychological research. The abstract system describes and gives the __________ for each published article, book, dissertation, and so on. These abstracts are cross- referenced by __________ and by __________, and are now computerized Other sources of questions for research are the practical problems of everyday life. Such research is referred to as __________ research. It is often contrasted with __________ research, which is carried out primarily to increase our store of knowledge, with few practical goals in mind. The influence of research on subsequent research can be __________ or __________. When a theory or research provides specific, testable hypotheses, it has a __________ influence. When it generates more research by creating interest and even disbelief, it has __________ influence.

  2. Once a question has been posed, it should be refined. Research involves studying __________, which are defined as sets of events that can take on different values. Any specific behavior or characteristic can be a variable. Some variables can be __________, which allows us to observe how changes in the variable might effect other variables. We refer to our original research question as a __________- __________-__________-__________ and a refinement of that question into a specific research project as the research __________. The research __________ clearly states the variables of interests and the procedure to test the hypothesized relationships between those variables.

  3. Variables can be classified in many different ways. __________ variables are observable responses of an organism. These are the variables most often observed in psychological research. __________ variables are the characteristics of the surroundings when behavior occurs. __________ or subject variables are characteristics of the participant, such as height, occupation, education level, and so on. Some of these organismic variables can be directly observed and, consequently, are referred to as __________ organismic variables. Other organismic variables cannot be directly observed (such as intelligence). These are referred to as __________-__________ organismic variables. Response-inferred organismic variables are __________ , i.e., rational ideas that have been constructed by the researcher.

  4. Besides the distinction between behavioral, stimulus, and organismic variables, another distinction between __________ and __________ variables is important. The __________ variable is observed and measured by the researcher. It is hypothesized that this variable will change as a function of changes in the __________ variable. We make the distinction between two types of independent variables. __________ independent variables are actively controlled by the experimenter. __________ independent variables are not directly under the experimenter's control. These nonmanipulated independent variables are most often __________ variables, i.e., characteristics of the participant. It is easier to draw causal inferences about the relationship between the independent and dependent variables when we use __________ independent variables instead of __________ independent variables.

  5. Validity is a critical concept in research. In essence, __________ refers to how well a study, procedure, or measure does what it is supposed to do. A fundamental task in research is to ensure validity by applying the appropriate __________. Controls are designed to minimize the effects of __________ - __________, which represent threats to the validity of a study. There are two ways of controlling extraneous variables. One method is to use __________-__________ research procedures whenever possible. A second method is to use __________ control procedures, which can be applied in research at all levels of constraint.

  6. Ethical considerations are an integral part of any research study. The American Psychological Association was one of the first professional organizations to set out ethical __________ for research. The purpose of the ethical guidelines is to minimize __________ for participants involved in the research. A cornerstone of the ethical guidelines in research with human participants is __________ __________, which means that the participant has a right to decide whether to participate based on a thorough understanding of what the project entails. If the participant is a child or is emotionally or mentally incapacitated, __________ must be given by some designated person who acts on behalf of the participant to protect the participant's rights. If the project involves any kind of __________, participants must be debriefed after the study is completed. Participants also have a right to expect __________ for any information that they provide as a participant. This is especially true if the information is of a sensitive or a personal nature. Finally, the __________ to the participant in a research study are always balanced against the potential __________ derived from the study. This means that a poorly designed study that would provide no potential benefits cannot be justified, even if the risks are minimal.

  7. Institutions that conduct research have set up __________ __________ __________. These boards review all research projects to be certain that they provide adequate protection for the participants. It is the responsibility of the researcher to submit a proposal to the appropriate IRB __________ to the gathering of any data. The IRB, however, does not exempt the researcher from responsibility for the ethical treatment of participants. On the contrary, the final ethical __________ always rests with the researcher.

  8. Researchers also have __________ responsibilities when their research involves animals. Guidelines for animal research specify that the animals should receive adequate and __________ housing, appropriate preoperative and postoperative care, and that the research should inflict as little __________ and __________ as possible. Although, researchers have sought alternatives to animal research, there are few alternatives to using live animals in __________ studies.

  9. Another research and ethical issue involves the _________ of participants, which refers to how well different groups of people are _________ in the research sample.