Graziano and Raulin (8th ed)Graziano & Raulin
Research Methods (8th edition)

Chapter 3 True/False Questions
The Starting Point: Asking Questions

Challenge yourself with these true/false questions. Click on your choice to see if you are correct.

  1. The starting point in any research project is to formulate a question. (True/False)

  2. The researcher's own personal interests and observations may be a valuable source of questions. (True/False)

  3. Theories of other researchers are not a particularly good source of research questions. (True/False)

  4. Successful research often raises new questions, even while it answers old questions. (True/False)

  5. Research reports can be located quickly by use of an abstract system such as PsycINFO. (True/False)

  6. Theories and research can raise new questions in two ways: heuristically, and systematically. (True/False)

  7. Research designed to find solutions to practical problems is referred to as basic research. (True/False)

  8. Basic research findings often provide the basis for later applied research. (True/False)

  9. A variable is defined as any set of events that may have different values. (True/False)

  10. All variables can be manipulated by the researcher. (True/False)

  11. An initially vague or general idea is first refined into a research hypothesis and then further refined into a statement of the problem. (True/False)

  12. For low-constraint research, it is especially critical to refine the statement of the problem as much as possible. (True/False)

  13. Behavioral variables refer to any stimulus in the environment that might affect our behavior. (True/False)

  14. Organismic variables are always directly observable characteristics of the participant, such as height or weight. (True/False)

  15. Stimulus variables may be either manipulated by the experimenter or an already existing part of the environment in which the research is being conducted. (True/False)

  16. Dependent variables are most likely to be behavioral variables. (True/False)

  17. A dependent variable is hypothesized to change as a result of the influence of an independent variable. (True/False)

  18. Organismic variables are the largest category of manipulated independent variables. (True/False)

  19. At the experimental level of constraint, nonmanipulated independent variables are used. (True/False)

  20. It is possible for a variable to be an organismic variable in one study, a stimulus variable in a different study, and a behavioral variable in yet another study. (True/False)

  21. Validity refers to how well a study, procedure, or measure does what it is supposed to do. (True/False)

  22. Validity is threatened whenever extraneous variables are controlled. (True/False)

  23. High-constraint research designs typically provide more effective control over extraneous variables. (True/False)

  24. In some experiments, control procedures should not be used. (True/False)

  25. It is expected that researchers will follow appropriate ethical guidelines. (True/False)

  26. A principle of ethical research is that it should be the responsibility of the researcher to decide if a participant will participate or not. (True/False)

  27. Informed consent is obtained when the Institutional Review Board approves a research project. (True/False)

  28. If a project has been fully approved by an Institutional Review Board, the researcher need no longer be concerned with the ethical appropriateness of the research. (True/False)

  29. In addition to ethical guidelines for research with human participants, there are published guidelines for research with animals. (True/False)

  30. One of the easiest areas in which to substitute computer simulations for live animals is in the area of behavioral studies. (True/False)

  31. The diversity of participants in research is, among other things, an ethical issue. (True/False)

  32. All independent variables are manipulated by the researcher. (True/False)

  33. The researcher may choose to manipulate the dependent variable in order to see what effect it has on the independent variable. (True/False)

  34. In psychology, the largest category of nonmanipulated independent variables is the organismic or subject variable. (True/False)

  35. Causal relationships are difficult to study if the independent variable in the study is manipulated by the researcher. (True/False)

  36. The age of the participant can be a manipulated independent variable. (True/False)

  37. The level of a participant's anxiety could be any of the following: a manipulated independent variable, a nonmanipulated independent variable, or a dependent variable. (True/False)