Graziano and Raulin (8th ed)Graziano & Raulin
Research Methods (8th edition)

Karen Horney (1885-1952) was a student of Freud, but came to disagree with Freud on many issues of his psychodynamic theory. She particularly disagreed with Freud's notion that women are driven by penis envy, and that personality is virtually all biologically determined. 

Horney also rejected Freud’s notion of a tripartite personality system (Id, Ego, Superego), although she continued to accept his ideas about the power of unconscious motivation in human behavior. Horney was an early feminist, and she maintained that women are not envious of men (Freud’s penis envy). Rather, she argued, men suffer from womb envy. This unconscious motivator drives men to behavior that limits, belittles, and harasses women, so as to keep them in an inferior status. Horney’s presented her ideas in a book entitled Our Inner Conflicts (1945).

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