Graziano and Raulin (8th ed)Graziano & Raulin
Research Methods (8th edition)

The Abstract

The abstract must summarize the research paper in no more than 120 words. It must include all elements of the research report. Enough information should be given so that anyone who reads the research study after reading the abstract will not be surprised by what they find in the article. 

Even though the abstract appears first, it is usually written last, because it essentially summarizes the work. Although the abstract is one of the shortest sections of the study, it is often the most difficult to write, because so much must be said in limited space. The abstract is published by abstracting services such as Psychological Abstracts or PsycINFO.

Typing Instructions