Graziano and Raulin (8th ed)Graziano & Raulin
Research Methods (8th edition)

Exercises Using the
Decision-Tree Flowchart

In each of the exercises below, we have described a research study and the key variables in the study. Your task is to use the decision-tree flowchart to decide what would be appropriate statistical procedures for analyzing each study. You can check your work by clicking on the word answer at the end of each question.

  1. The impact of cognitive workload and distraction on the ability to maintain concentration was investigated in the 3 X 3 factorial study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the nine conditions. The task for participants was to watch a computer screen and respond whenever a particular letter or sequence of letters (called the target) appeared on the screen. The letters always appeared in the center of the screen, and the participant had to respond within 800 milliseconds for the response to be correct. Each target appeared 200 times in a 20-minute period. The cognitive workload variable was manipulated by increasing the number of letters that the participant had to watch for or the complexity of the combinations. In one condition, the target was either A or X. In a second condition, the target was anyone of several letters (A, X, D, L, P, S). In the last condition, the target was either an A or X, but only if it followed a D, L, P, or S. The distraction was manipulated by flashing numbers randomly around the screen. In the control condition, numbers were flashed only in one corner of the screen. In a second condition, numbers were flashed anywhere along the edge of the screen, and in the final condition, the numbers were flashed very close to where the letters always appeared on the screen. The dependent measure was the number of errors made out of the 200 target trials. answer

  2. The effect of frustration on giving up on a task and its relationship to the personality variable of insecurity was investigated by forming two groups of participants based on their scores on a standard measure of insecurity. Those above a score of 15 on this measure made up the insecure group, and those below a score of 7 made up the secure group. People with score between 8 and 14 were not included. Fifteen people from each group were tested in one large room. Stimuli were presented in front of the room, so that they were visible to all participants. Participants responded to each stimulus with a key press on a computer in front of them. Their task was to categorize each image projected in front of them into one of eight categories and respond by pressing the key that represented that category. Images were initially presented one each 10 seconds, but the time between images was decreased by 1% with each trial until the images were being flashed faster than one per second. The participant was considered to have given up on the task when he or she failed to respond correctly to five consecutive stimuli. The dependent measure was the rank ordering of when each of the 30 participants gave up (1 being the first to give up and 30 being the last). answer

  3. In a study of patterns of support for the United Way, the giving patterns of men and women were compared. The dependent measure was the amount pledged expressed as a proportion of the person's total base salary. answer

  4. The relationship between formal religious affiliation and political affiliation is evaluated as part of the analysis of a large survey study. The categories of formal religious affiliation are Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, Muslim, Other, and No Affiliation. The categories of political affiliation are Democrat, Republican, Other, and No Affiliation. The sample includes 4,322 randomly selected adults from the U.S. answer

  5. The relationship between four measures of social anxiety was investigated by giving the four self-report measures to a group of 215 participants. The question was "How strongly related were these four measures?" answer