Graziano and Raulin (8th ed)Graziano & Raulin
Research Methods (8th edition)

Describing the Sample

It is always a good idea to describe your sample. Depending on the nature of the sample, the description may include the average age, education, classification of critical dimensions (grade in school, diagnosis, social class, sex, etc.), and other features that may be relevant to how the sample might respond on the task (IQ score, income, occupations).

If more than one group is being compared, you should describe each group separately and test to see if those groups differ on any of these demographic variables. For each of the demographic variable that describe the sample, click on the type of data it produces to select the appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics.

Nominal Data
Ordered Data
Score Data


If you have completed the process of describing your samples
and testing for differences among the groups,
click the Proceed Button below
to move to the next step.