Graziano and Raulin (8th ed)Graziano & Raulin
Research Methods (8th edition)

Research and Publication Section
APA Ethical Principles (2002)

The APA Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) include a section discussing the ethics of research and publication. The full text of this document is available on the APA web site ( Following is a brief summary of the fifteen main points of the section on research and publication.

8. Research and Publication

8.01 Institutional Approval

Typically universities and other institutions require that investigators obtain prior institutional approval for research and conduct it in accordance with the approved protocols. 

8.02, 8.03, and 8.05 Informed Consent to Research

Investigators are typically required to obtain the informed consent of participants prior to the study. 

Participants are informed about the research purposes and procedures, duration, potential risks, the limits of confidentiality, their right to decline or withdraw, opportunities to have their questions answered, etc. With treatment intervention research, the investigator must disclose treatment information to the experimental group, alternative treatments for the control groups, and other information specific to issues of treatment. Specific informed consent is required to record voices or images.

Under some conditions, as defined by this code, informed consent can be dispensed with.  

8.04 Client/Patient, Student, and Subordinate Research Participants

When research participants are clients/patients, students or subordinates, special care must be taken to protect them from negative consequences should they decline or withdraw.

8.06 Offering Inducements for Research Participation

Excessive or inappropriate inducements to participate must be avoided. Any inducements such as financial payments or professional services must be clearly defined.

8.07 Deception in Research

Psychologists must justify the use of deception as being necessary to carry out the particular study. All deception must be explained to participants (debriefing) as early in the process as possible without jeopardizing the research, and no later than at the end of data collection.

8.08 Debriefing

It is essential to provide participants with appropriate information about the study as soon as possible. Debriefing at the end of the study provides answers and, when necessary, assistance to reduce or prevent possible or actual negative effects.

8.09 Humane Care and Use of Animals in Research

Psychologists insure the humane care and treatment of animals in research, and that all assistants and colleagues in the research comply with state, federal and local laws pertaining to animal use.

8.10 Reporting Research Results

It is unethical to publish knowingly false or deceptive statements or fabricated data. Psychologists must take appropriate steps to correct errors in published accounts.

8.11 Plagiarism

It is unethical to present other researchers’ data as one’s own.

8.12 Publication Credit

Authorship credit is claimed only for work one has performed or to which one has significantly contributed.

8.13 Duplicate Publication of Data

If psychologists republish previously published data they must clearly disclose it as such.

8.14 Sharing Research Data for Verification

Psychologists do not withhold data from other professionals who seek to verify published claims.

8.15 Reviewers

Reviewers maintain the confidentiality and proprietary rights of those whose work they review.

Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (2002). The full text is available on the APA web site (