Ninth Edition CoverGraziano & Raulin
Research Methods (9th edition)

Quotations in the Text

A quotation is any section of verbatim material taken from another source and included in your paper. Such material must be identified as a quotation, with the source of the quoted material noted. Failure to do so is considered plagiarism. 

Short quotations (less than 40 words) are incorporated into the text material and surrounded by quotation marks. Longer quotations are typed as a paragraph, where all lines of the quotation are indented five spaces from the left margin. Such long quotations are not placed in quotation marks. 

The quotation should be an accurate representation of the original material. If there is an error, such as a misspelled or incorrect word in the original, it should be reproduced as originally written, but the word sic (italicized) should be places in parentheses immediately after the error. If any material is inserted to help clarify the meaning of a quotation, it should be placed in brackets as well to indicate that it was not a part of the original. Finally, if any material is omitted, three periods (. . .) should be inserted to indicate that material was omitted. If you want to emphasize something in the original text, italicize it and put in brackets "italics added" immediately after the italicized portion.

The source of any quotation, regardless of its length, should be indicated. If the source is obvious from the flow of the paper, the page number source should be indicated in parentheses immediately afterward. If the source is not obvious, the reference to the source and the page numbers should appear in parentheses immediately afterward. Listed below are two such examples drawn from an earlier edition of this textbook.

Graziano and Raulin (1997) note that certain characteristics of scientists "are equally well developed in poets, sculptors, painters, composers, philosophers, writers, and others." (p. 5)

"The essence of science is its systematic, disciplined way of thinking" (Graziano & Raulin, 1997, p. 5).