Ninth Edition CoverGraziano & Raulin
Research Methods (9th edition)

Reference List

The reference list provides the reader with the information needed to seek out the original source of information. Each study discussed in the paper is listed in alphabetical order by the last name of the author(s). Works by the same author are arranged chronologically according to publication date. 

In addition to the author(s) and the title of the research study, a complete reference to the research report is included. The most common reference is to an article in a research journal. The format for such a reference is to list (1) the author(s), last name first, followed by initials, (2) the year the paper was published, listed in parentheses, (3) the title of the article, (4) the journal title, (5) the volume of the journal, and (6) the pages of the article. The journal title and the volume number are italicized, but nothing else in the reference should be italicized. Here are two examples of references to journal articles:

Collier, R. (1994). A historical overview of natural language processing systems that learn. Artificial Intelligence Review, 8, 17–54.

Benson, D. F., & Stuss, D. T. (1990). Frontal lobe influences on delusions: A clinical perspective. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 16, 403–411.

A similar format is used for a reference to a book. Again, we list (1) the author(s), (2) the year the book was published in parentheses, (3) the title of the book, which should be italicized, (4) the city in which the book was published, and (5) the publisher. Here are examples of references to books:

Kazdin, A. E. (1998). Research design in clinical psychology (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan.

Loftus, E. F., & Ketcham, K. (1994). The myth of repressed memory: False memories and allegations of sexual abuse. New York: St. Martin's Press.

There are dozens of possible reference sources. We have included a reference list overview, which includes the details of how to reference most of the common reference sources in APA publication style.