Ninth Edition CoverGraziano & Raulin
Research Methods (9th edition)

Presenting Statistics
in the Results Section

Statistics are reported in the text of the results section by describing the differences found, followed by a comma, followed by the supporting statistic. In each case, the degrees of freedom for the statistic should be included in parentheses immediately after the letter designating the statistics. The value of the statistic is then given, followed by the p for the statistic. All single-letter statistical symbols should be italicized in the text. Examples of several statistics are presented below.

Reporting t-tests

Boys were found to be significantly more aggressive than girls in the playground situation, t(28) = 2.33, p < 0.05.

Reporting ANOVAs

There was a significant difference in performance between the three distraction conditions, F(2, 27) = 3.69, p < 0.05.

Reporting chi-squares

Psychology majors were significantly more likely to classify themselves as "humanistic" than were engineering majors, X2(1, N=60) = 4.47, p < 0.05.